Roman dating endings
It was now no longer necessary to mark coins as Roman as there were no others in Italy and by the 1st century BCE Roman coins were now also being widely used across the Mediterranean.In 84 BCE once again the link between warfare and coinage was evidenced when Sulla minted new silver and gold coins to pay his armies, a necessity repeated by Julius Caesar, who in 46 BCE, minted the largest quantity of gold coin yet seen in Rome, outproducing the state mint in the process.As Rome expanded and took ever more treasure from her enemies silver began to replace bronze as the most important material for coinage.This was especially so following the acquisition of the silver mines of Macedonia from 167 BCE, resulting in a huge boom in silver coins from 157 BCE. 141 BCE the bronze was devalued so that now 16 were equivalent to one denarius.Gradually, following the financial excesses of the Punic Wars, the weight of coins was reduced, as was the metal content of the bronze bars. Appearing for the first time was the silver denarius (pl.
Nero did this in 64 CE (reducing gold content by 4.5% and silver by 11%) as did Commodus, Septimius Severus and Caracalla, who produced the antoninianus which perhaps had the face value of two denarii whilst only really being worth nearer one and a half.
Roman coins were first produced in the late 4th century BCE in Italy and continued to be minted for another eight centuries across the empire.
Denominations and values more or less constantly changed but certain types such as the sestertii and denarii would persist and come to rank amongst the most famous coins in history.
Coins were continuously minted as taxation only met 80% of the imperial budget and the shortfall was met by putting more coins into circulation, the source coming from freshly mined metal.
This also meant that extravagant emperors could get themselves into serious financial trouble.
Gradually, silver coins went from pure to 50% and then on down until they reached an all time low of just 2% silver content.