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The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole" (field).
The establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to A. 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity.
His efforts to create an institution of higher learning in Poland were finally rewarded when Pope Urban V granted him permission to open the University of Kraków.
Casimir III the Great is the only Polish king to receive the title of Great.
With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s.
In 1226, Konrad I of Masovia, one of the regional Piast dukes, invited the Teutonic Knights to help him fight the Baltic Prussian pagans; a decision that led to centuries of warfare with the Knights.